Veal, L. Ramon and Sally Ann Hudson. “Direct and Indirect Measures for Large-Scale Evaluation of Writing” AW
“Holistic scoring does indeed require less time and money, making it the most economical of the direct measures. Analytic scoring does correlate highly with holistic ratings and does provide more detailed analysis of some holistic ratings. Primary trait and mechanics count scoring, because of lower correlations and higher cost figures, may not appropriately remain the tools of the researcher concerned with more specific contexts and features of writing…The smaller cost of selecting an using an objective test as an indirect measure of writing may be advantageous if users are primarily interested in testing only mechanical skills related to writing.
If a large scale summative assessment of writing is what is needed, that in light of validity, reliability, and cost considerations, recommendations from this study call for a holistically rated writing sample as a measure of minimum competence because of its face validity, proven reliability, and economy” (17-8).